Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficiency/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex of symptoms that plague millions of children and often survive into adulthood. ADHD includes a spectrum of difficult-to-manage symptoms, such as attention deficiency, hyperactivity, and impulsive tendencies. Youngsters suffering from ADHD often face difficulties with school curriculum, academic performance, social bonding, and, last but not least, damaged self-esteem. Symptoms often seem to get better with age. However, quite a lot of ADHD patients never completely rise above ADHD symptoms. Yet there are ample ways to manage the onslaught of symptoms at bay. A Better You has the best ADHD doctor in Kolkata on our team, who can provide you with all-encompassing and comprehensive ADHD care for you and your loved ones.

What are the common symptoms of ADHD?

ADHD, or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that commonly manifests during childhood but can continue into adolescence and adulthood. It is characterised by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. While the specific symptoms and their severity can vary among individuals, here are the primary symptoms associated with ADHD: 1. Inattention :
  • Difficulty sustaining attention and easily getting distracted by external stimuli or unrelated thoughts.
  • Struggling to follow through on tasks or instructions and committing careless mistakes.
  • Forgetfulness, frequently losing items and being disorganised.
  • Difficulty organising and managing time effectively.
2. Hyperactivity :
  • Restlessness and an inability to stay still manifested as fidgeting, squirming, or constantly moving.
  • Excessive talking and difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
  • Difficulty engaging in activities that require calm and focused behavior.
3. Impulsivity :
  • Impatience and difficulty waiting for one’s turn in activities or conversations.
  • Blurting out answers or interrupting others inappropriately.
  • Acting without considering the consequences and hence, indulging in risk-taking behaviours.
However, not everyone with ADHD experiences all of these symptoms, and they can manifest differently depending on the individual and their age. In children, symptoms might be more noticeable in school settings, whereas in adults, they might affect work performance, relationships, and overall daily functioning. In the face of ADHD, it is crucial to get the counsel of the best ADHD doctor, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for a comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis of ADHD. They will consider the severity of symptoms and their impact on daily life to suggest effective management techniques and medicines.

What are the common symptoms of ADHD?

Most preschool children are hyperactive and fidgety. Hence, the line between a normal child and an ADHD child could appear blurred. And it is completely erroneous to ascribe ADHD to a child based on their hyperactivity or lack of concentration. The right to diagnose should be left to the professionals. However, if your child suffers from a lack of concentration for a prolonged period, along with risk-taking behaviours and poor academic performance, you should not flinch away from taking them to an accredited professional.

Attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder

What are the common symptoms of ADHD?

ADHD is known to possess myriad risk factors, the presence of which can significantly escalate the chances of acquiring the disease.
  • Genetic roots can predispose you to ADHD. If your blood relatives have ADHD, your chances of acquiring the same are high.
  • Exposure to certain chemical toxins like lead (found mainly in plants and pipes in industrial settings) can put you at a formidable risk of ADHD.
  • Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role in regulating attention, behaviour, and impulse control. Imbalances or disruptions in these neurotransmitters have been associated with ADHD.

What complications can ADHD endanger?

ADHD can endanger many physiological and psychological complications, including:
  • It can significantly impair the academic performance of the children. Due to a lack of concentration, poor organisation, and weakened time management skills, children with ADHD find it difficult to excel at the academy.
  • ADHD is indexed by severe concentration deficiency problems. Hence, sufferers of ADHD might find it difficult to navigate immersive and engrossing tasks.
  • Adults with ADHD may experience challenges in the workplace. Difficulties with concentration, time management, and organisational skills can affect job performance, productivity, and overall career progression. Additionally, impulsivity and restlessness may impact professional relationships and adherence to workplace protocols.
  • Impulsivity and sensation-seeking tendencies in individuals with ADHD can lead to engaging in risky behaviours. This may include substance abuse, reckless driving, unprotected sexual activity, or gambling.
  • People with ADHD may experience difficulties regulating their emotions. They may be prone to emotional outbursts, have difficulty managing frustration or anger, and struggle with emotional self-control.
Confused about your treatment options?
Confused about your treatment options?

What are the other coexisting complications of ADHD?

According to the best ADHD doctor the disease is often accompanied by many other coexisting complications, including many psycho-social or motor disabilities : 
  1. Learning Disabilities : Many individuals with ADHD also have learning disabilities, such as dyslexia or dyscalculia, that can further impact academic performance and educational outcomes.
  2. Executive Functioning Deficits : Executive function refers to a set of cognitive processes responsible for planning, organising, problem-solving, and self-regulation. Individuals with ADHD often experience challenges in executive functioning, leading to difficulties in managing time, setting goals, initiating tasks, and organising information.
  3. Sleep Disorders : Sleep problems, including insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing, are more prevalent in individuals with ADHD. These sleep disturbances can exacerbate ADHD symptoms, impair daytime functioning, and contribute to further difficulties in attention and behaviour.
  4. Anxiety Disorders : Anxiety disorders commonly coexist with ADHD. Excessive worry, social anxiety, and generalised anxiety can significantly impact daily life, exacerbate ADHD symptoms, and contribute to academic or occupational impairments.
  5. Mood Disorders : Conditions such as depression and bipolar disorder may occur alongside ADHD. Mood swings, low mood, and difficulties with emotional regulation can be intertwined with ADHD symptoms, affecting overall emotional well-being.
  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) : ODD and CD are behaviour disorders that often coexist with ADHD. ODD is characterised by a pattern of defiant, argumentative, and disobedient behaviour, while CD involves more severe antisocial behaviours such as aggression, rule-breaking, and disregard for others’ rights. These conditions can complicate social interactions and family dynamics.
  7. Substance Use Disorders : Individuals with ADHD have a higher risk of developing substance use disorders, including alcohol and drug abuse. Impulsivity, risk-taking behaviours, and self-medication attempts may contribute to the increased vulnerability to substance misuse.
  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) : There is an overlap between ADHD and ASD, and some individuals may have symptoms of both conditions. Social communication difficulties, repetitive behaviours, and restricted interests may be present alongside ADHD symptoms.

What are the treatments for ADHD?

The treatment for ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) usually involves a combination of behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, psychoanalytic counselling, and medication. The specific approach to treatment may depend on the individual’s age, symptoms, and overall health. Here are some common treatment options: 1. Behavioural Therapy : This form of treatment aims to improve specific behaviours and develop coping strategies. It may include the following:
  • Parent Training : Parents learn techniques to manage their child’s behaviour and provide structure and support.
  • Behavioral Classroom Interventions : Teachers employ strategies to help children with ADHD focus, stay organised, and manage their behaviour in the classroom.
  • Individual Therapy : Children or adults with ADHD can benefit from individual therapy to address the emotional and behavioural challenges associated with the disorder.
2. Psychoeducation : Education about ADHD helps individuals and their families understand the nature of the condition, its impact on daily functioning, and available coping strategies. Psychoeducation can empower individuals to better manage their symptoms and help them make successful social bonds. 3. Medication : Medication may be prescribed in combination with behavioural therapy. Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) or amphetamine-based drugs (Adderall, Vyvanse), are commonly used by the best ADHD doctor to manage the symptoms. Non-stimulant medications like atomoxetine (Strattera) or certain antidepressants may be prescribed if stimulants are not well-tolerated or if there are comorbid conditions.
*Dr. Subhadeep Roy is one of the experienced Neuropsychiatrists in Kolkata, who offer the best ADHD treatment in Kolkata